uvula n : a small pendant fleshy lobe at the back of the soft palate [also: uvulae (pl)]
Etymologyuvula, diminutive of uva.
- The Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 1989) marks this word as not naturalized in English.
appendage that hangs from the palate
- Czech: čípek
- Dutch: huig
- Finnish: kitakieleke
- French: luette, uvule, uvula
- German: Gaumenzäpfchen
- Japanese: 口蓋垂 (こうがいすい)
- Korean: 목젖
- Russian: язычок
The uvula () is the conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers (uvulae muscle).
Function in voiceThe uvula plays a key role in the articulation of the sound of the human voice to form the sounds of speech. It functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up from the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds. Consonants pronounced with the uvula are not found in English; however, languages such as Arabic, French, German, Hebrew, Ubykh, and Hmong use uvular consonants to varying degrees. Certain African languages use the uvula to produce click consonants as well. In English (as well as many other languages), it closes to prevent air escaping through the nose when making some sounds.
Universal EmeticMassaging the uvula causes the gag reflex to initiate and expel stomach contents, providing a universal alternative to ipecac. However, frequently inducing vomiting (as seen in the case of bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder) can result in damage to the lining of the esophagus and other long term health problems, such as rotting of the teeth and gums.
Velopharyngeal insufficiencyIn a small number of people, the uvula does not close properly against the back of the throat, causing a condition known as velopharyngeal insufficiency or VPI. This causes "nasal" (or more properly "hyper-nasal") speech, where a lot of extra air comes down the nose, and the speaker is unable to say certain consonants, for example producing the sound /b/ like /m/.
Snoring and sleep apneaThe uvula can also contribute to snoring or heavy breathing during sleep; having an elongated uvula can cause vibrations which lead to the snoring. In some cases this can lead to sleep apnea, which may be treated by removal of the uvula or part of the uvula if necessary, an operation known as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (commonly referred to as UPPP, or U3P). It should be noted, however, that this operation can also cause sleep apnea if scar tissue forms and the airspace in the velopharnyx is decreased. The success of UPPP as a treatment for sleep apnea is unknown, but some research has shown 40-60% effectiveness in reducing symptoms. Typically apnea subsides for the short term, but returns over the medium to long term, and sometimes is worse than it was before the UPPP.
Nasal regurgitationDuring swallowing, the soft palate and the uvula move superiorly to close off the nasopharynx, preventing food from entering the nasal cavity. When this process fails, the result is called nasal regurgitation. It is common in people with VPI.
Swollen uvula - uvulitisAt times, the mucous membrane around the uvula may swell, causing the uvula to expand 3-5 times its normal size. When the uvula touches the throat or tongue, it can cause sensations like gagging or choking, even though there is no foreign matter present. This can cause problems breathing, talking, and eating.
There are many theories about what causes the uvula to swell, including: 1) dehydration (from arid weather); 2) excessive smoking or other inhaled irritants; 3) snoring; 4) allergic reaction; or 5) a viral or bacterial infection.
If the swelling is caused by dehydration, drink plenty of fluids. If the cause is a bacterial infection, gargling salt water may help. A swollen uvula is normally not life-threatening and subsides in a short time, typically within a day. However, it can also be a sign of other problems. Some patients with a history or recurring uvulitis have to carry an EpiPen containing Adrenaline (Epinephrine) to inject themselves whenever the uvulitis begins. If the swelling has not subsided within 8-12 hours, or if it is accompanied by other symptoms (such as fever or pain), it is best to see your health care provider.
Bifid uvulaSplitting of the uvula occurs infrequently but is the most common form of mouth and nose area cleavage among newborns (roughly 2% of infants have this bifid or split uvula). Newborns with cleft palate also have a split uvula. The bifid uvula results from failure of complete fusion of the medial nasal and maxillary processes.
A bifid uvula is a split or cleft uvula. This occurs in about 1% of caucasians and 10% of Native Americans. Bifid uvulas have less muscle in them than a normal uvula, this may cause recurring problems with middle ear infections. While swallowing, the soft palate is pushed backwards. This prevents food and drink from entering the nasal cavity; if the soft palate cannot touch the back of the throat while swallowing, food and drink can enter the nasal cavity.
Removal of part of uvula to prevent throat infectionsIn some parts of Africa, including Ethiopia and Eritrea, part of the uvula may be removed by a traditional healer to prevent throat infections. In this case, the uvula may be noticeably shortened. It is not thought to contribute to VPI, except in cases where the tonsils have also been removed .
Uvula in fashionToday, the uvula is one of many body parts that people pierce. However, uvula piercings are very dangerous compared to other forms of body piercing, as the risks involved include swelling, throat edema, choking, and uvular infection.
Notable patientsAnita O'Day, a popular big band singer, lost her uvula by a 'slip of the knife' during a childhood surgery. This affected her voice by eliminating vibrato, she said, in an interview with Terry Gross of NPR's "Fresh Air" radio show.
Image:Illu mouth.jpg|Mouth (oral cavity). tonsils, soft palate, and tongue to the doctor at his checkup.
- - Uvulitis
uvula in German: Uvula
uvula in Dhivehi: ކުޑަ ދޫ
uvula in Spanish: Úvula
uvula in French: Luette
uvula in Korean: 목젖
uvula in Hebrew: ענבל
uvula in Dutch: Huig
uvula in Japanese: 口蓋垂
uvula in Norwegian: Drøvel
uvula in Polish: Języczek
uvula in Portuguese: Úvula
uvula in Finnish: Kitakieleke